Scotland's Rural College
Field Trials Research Data


Tulloch Organic Rotation - Background Information:

In order to investigate the long-term productivity of legume based systems, two crop rotations were established in a replicated trial at SRUC at Tulloch, Aberdeen in 1991 (57° 10.5’ N; 2° 15.7’ W). The site is 125m above sea level and is a sandy loam soil of the Countesswells Association (Glentworth & Muir, 1963). The rotations are managed organically without any inputs from soluble fertilisers. A stocked rotation represents a typical rotation for the North East of Scotland with sheep grazing grass/white clover leys in the ley phase and is described more fully in Taylor et al. (2006). The stockless rotation investigates the feasibility of stockless organic farming in the region. The stockless rotation does not have grazing livestock and does not use imported livestock manure. In both rotations lime, rock phosphate and sulphate of potash are used on the basis of need recognised by soil analysis in line with Soil Association organic standards. To date, additions have been limited to moderate applications approximately once per rotational cycle. Each rotation is replicated twice with all courses of the rotation present in every year.
Originally (from 1991) the trial compared two stocked ley/arable rotations comprising Tulloch 2: 50 % ley rotation (3 years of grass/white clover followed by spring oats, swedes and undersown spring oats) and Tulloch 1: 67% ley rotation (4 years of grass/white clover followed by spring oats, and undersown spring oats). As far as we know this is the oldest organically managed crop rotation trial in Europe that actually includes grazing livestock, as many “grazed” trials simply simulate grazing using a cut and mulch approach. In 2007 the Tulloch 1 rotation was changed to include two stockless rotations (grass/red clover, potatoes or spring wheat followed by spring wheat or potatoes, spring beans, spring barley, and finally spring oats. All cereals and beans are undersown with white clover, with the exception of oats which in that case are undersown with a red clover / ryegrass mixture). In 2007, the Tulloch 2 rotation was also split so that it included two stocked rotations, with either spring oats (as per the original rotation) or spring barley after the grass-clover ley. All other crops in the stocked rotation remained in the same sequence as they had since 1991. All plots were limed in 2007 to raise the soil pH to just above pH 6.0. A range of data is available from the trials including yield (of which summaries can be found through the links on this webpage), as well as crop quality data and soil analysis data, with annual standard soil sampling taking place to a depth of 15cm in late winter (pre-ploughing) every year, with a number of soil chemical properties analysed, including plant available P, K and Mg, soil pH and soil organic matter (Loss on Ignition). A range of other crop biomass and quality as well as soil related data (including soil N at different depths) is available for research purposes and collaboration (see KB numbers in the Bibles for more details) and requests should be directed towards staff working on the project:
  • Christine Watson: christine.watson@sruc.ac.uk
  • Kairsty Topp: kairsty.topp@sruc.ac.uk
  • Robin Walker: robin.walker@sruc.ac.uk

You can checkout the relevant Tulloch Rotational Trial or Conference Papers for more information. To view the data however, click each of the card links below.

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Sruc
Bibles

100001 - 100120
100121 - 100240
100241 - 100249
View Data...
Sruc
Tulloch

R1, G2, 4.34, 1.82
R1, G3, 2.21, 2.41
R1, G4, 2.79, 3.44
View Data...
Barley
Barley Grains

2016, 6a, 1, 2.09, 100.0
2016, 6a, 2, 2.83, 100.0
2016, 6b, 1, 3.61, 100.0
View Data...
Barley under sown
Barley Straw

2016, 6a, 1, 1.4, 100.0
2016, 6a, 2, 3.0, 100.0
2016, 6b, 1, 2.6, 100.0
View Data...
Oats
Oats Grain

2016, 1a, 1, 6.61, 100.0
2016, 1a, 2, 7.08, 100.0
2016, 1b, 1, 9.21, 100.0
View Data...
Oats
Oats Straw

2016, 1a, 1, 2.8, 100.0
2016, 1a, 2, 2.4, 100.0
2016, 1b, 1, 5.5, 100.0
View Data...
Wheat under sown
Wheat Grain

2016, 3b, 1, 7.68, 100.0
2016, 3b, 2, 3.15, 100.0
2016, 4a, 1, 6.05, 100.0
View Data...
Wheat under sown
Wheat Straw

2016, 3b, 1, 6.0, 100.0
2016, 3b, 2, 4.6, 100.0
2016, 4a, 1, 4.2, 100.0
View Data...

TULLOCH ROTATION TRIAL - REFERED PAPERS

1. Ball, B.C., McTaggart, I. & Watson, C.A. (2002). Influence of organic ley-arable management and afforestation in sandy loam to clay loam soil on fluxes of N2O and CH4 in Scotland. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 90, 305-317.
2. Younie, D. & Litterick, A. (2002) Crop protection in organic farming. Pestic. Outlook, 2002,13, 158-161.
3. Watson, C. A., Bengtsson, H., Løes, A-K., Myrbeck, A., Salomon, E., Schroder, J. & Stockdale, E.A. (2002). A review of farm-scale nutrient budgets for organic farms as a tool for management of soil fertility. Soil Use and Management 18, 264-273.
4. Ball, B.C. & Douglas, J.T. (2003) A simple procedure for assessing soil structural, rooting and surface conditions. Soil Use and Management. 19, 50–56.
5. Fortune, S., Robinson, J.S., Watson, C.A., Philipps, C.A., Conway, J. & Stockdale, E.A. (2005). Response of organically managed grassland to available P and K in the soil and supplementary P and K fertilisers – field trials using grass-clover leys cut for silage. Soil Use and Management 21, 370-376.
6. Taylor, B.R., Younie, D., Matheson, S., Coutts, M., Mayer, C., Watson, C.A. & Walker, R.L. (2006). Output and Sustainability of Organic Ley/Arable Crop Rotations at Two Sites in Northern Scotland. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 144, 435-447.
7. Topp, C.F.E., Stockdale, E.A., Watson, C.A. & Rees, R.M. (2007). Efficiencies of resource use in organic agriculture. Journal of the Science of Food & Agriculture 87, 2782-2790.
8. Ball, B.C., Batey, T. & Munkholm, L.J.. (2007) Field assessment of soil structural quality – a development of the Peerlkamp test. Soil Use and Management 23, 329–337. 9. Ball, B.C., Watson, C.A. & Baddeley, J. 2007. Soil physical fertility, soil structure and rooting conditions after ploughing organically managed grass ⁄ clover swards. Soil Use and Management, 23, 20–27.
10. Paterson E, Thornton B, Midwood AJ, Osborne SM, Sim A, Millard P (2008) Atmospheric CO2 enrichment and nutrient additions to planted soil increase mineralisation of soil organic matter, but do not alter microbial alter microbial utilisation of plant- and soil C-sources. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 40, 2434–2440.
11. B.S. Griffiths, B.C. Ball, T.J. Daniell, P.D. Hallett, R. Neilson, R.E. Wheatley, G. Osler, M. Bohanec (2010) Integrating soil quality changes to arable agricultural systems following organic matter addition, or adoption of a ley-arable rotation. Applied Soil Ecology Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 43–53.
12. Garcia-Pausas, J., Paterson, E., 2011. Microbial community abundance and structure are determinants of soil organic matter mineralisation in the presence of labile carbon. Soil Biol. Biochem. 43, 1705-1713.
13. Knox, O.G.G, Leake, A. R., Walker, R.L., Edwards, A. C. & Watson, C.A. (2011) Historical rotations of Scotland and their existence in the present day and toward the future. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 35: 2, 163-179.
14. Paterson, E., Sim, A., Osborne, S.M. & Murray, P.J. 2011. Long-term exclusion of plant-inputs to soil reduces the functional capacity of microbial communities to mineralize recalcitrant root-derived carbon sources. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 43, 1873–1880.
15. Watson, C.A., Baddeley, J.A., Edwards, A.C., Rees, R.M., Walker, R.L. & Topp, C.F.E, (2011). Influence of ley duration on the yield and quality of the subsequent cereal crop (spring oats) in an organically managed long-term crop rotation experiment. Organic Agriculture 1, 147-159.
16. Rees, R.M., Augustin, J., Alberti, G., Ball, B.C., Boeckx, P., Cantarel, A., Castaldi, S., Chirinda, N., Chojnicki, B., Giebels, M., Gordon, H., Grosz, B., Horvath, L., Juszczak, R., Klemedtsson, Å.K., Klemedtsson, L., Medinets, S., Machon, A., Mapanda, F., Nyamangara, J., Olesen, J., Reay, D., Sanchez, L., Sanz Cobena, A., Smith, K. A., Sowerby, A., Sommer, M., Soussana, J.F., Stenberg, M., Topp, C.F.E., van Cleemput, O., Vallejo, A., Watson, C.A. & Wuta, M. (2012). Nitrous oxide emissions from European agriculture; an analysis of variability and drivers of emissions from field experiments, Biogeosciences Discuss., 9, 9259-9288, (DOI:10.5194/bgd-9-9259-2012)
17. Paterson E, Sim A (2013) Soil-specific response functions of organic matter mineralisation to the availability of labile carbon. Global Change Biology, 19, 1562–1571.
18. Papadopoulos, A., Bird, N.R.A.,.Whitmore, A.P. & Mooney, S.J. (2014) Does organic management lead to enhanced soil physical quality? Geoderma 213, 435–443.
19. Ball, B.C., Griffiths, B.S., Topp, C.F.E., Wheatley, R., Walker, R.L., Rees, R.M., Watson, C.A., Gordon, H., Hallett, P.D., McKenzie, B.M. & Nevison, I.M. (2014) Seasonal nitrous oxide emissions from field soils under reduced tillage, compost application or organic farming. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 189, 171-80.
20. Smith, L.G., Tarsitano, D., Topp, C.F.E., Jones, S.K., Gerrard, C.L., Pearce, B.D., Williams, A.G. & Watson, C.A. (2016). Predicting the effect of rotation design on N, P, K balances on organic farms using the NDICEA model. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1742170515000381 .
21. Iannetta, P.P.M, Young, M., Bachinger, J., Bergkvist, G., Lopez-Bellido, R.J., Doltra, J., Monti, M., Pappa, V.A., Reckling, M., Topp, C.F.E., Walker, R.L., Rees, R.M., Watson, C.A., James, E.K., Squire, G.R., & Begg, G.S. (2016) A comparative nitrogen balance and productivity analysis of legume and non-legume supported cropping systems: the potential role of biological nitrogen fixation. Frontiers in Plant Science http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01700.

CONFERENCE PAPERS

1. Buckingham, S., Cloy, J.M., Walker, R.L., Watson, C.A. & Topp, C.F.E. (2015). Modelling the effect of ley-phase duration on soil carbon and nitrogen budgets with Landscape-DNDC at Tulloch (Scotland), a long-term organic rotation experimental site. Aspects of Applied Biology 128, 257-262.
2. Cloy, J.M., Rees, R.M., Drewer, J., Helfrich, M., Ball, B.C., Buckingham, S., Topp, C.F.E., Walker, R.L. & Watson, C.A. (2015) Assessing soil organic matter changes in an organically managed long-term crop rotation experiment. Aspects of Applied Biology 128, 111-118.
3. Watson, C.A., Rees, R.M. & Topp, C.F.E. (2015). Nitrogen Fixation in a Ley-Arable Rotation. Aspects of Applied Biology 128, 245-248.
4. Watson, C.A., Topp, C.F.E. & Walker, R.L. (2015) Long-term productivity of legume based crop rotations. Aspects of Applied Biology 128, 189-194.
5. Rees, R.M., Angelopoulos, N., Ball, B.C., Drewar, J., Edwards, A.C., Helfrich, M., Te pas, C., Topp, C.F.E., Walker, R. & Watson, C.A. (2013) Does organic farming promote carbon sequestration and improve soil quality? 4th International Symposium on Soil Organic Matter 2013. 5-10 May 2013, Nanjing, China.
6. Ball B, McKenzie B, Holland J, Waterhouse A, Gordon H, Topp K, Watson C, Rees R, Griffiths B, Parker J and Walker R (2013) Tillage and mitigation of nitrous oxide emissions. Sustainable intensification: The pathway to low carbon farming? 25-27 September 2013 at John McIntyre Conference Centre, Edinburgh.
7. Walker, R.L., Edwards, A.C. & Watson, C.A. (2013) Nutrient cycling and soil fertility associated with long-term field experiments established in 1922 onwards. AAB Farming System Design Workshop. 6th March 2013, Newcastle, UK.
8. Iannetta, P., Begg, G., Young, M., Topp, C. F. E, Watson, C. A., Rees, R. M., and Squire, G. 2012. A nitrogen-budget analysis of legume supported cropping systems from across Europe. 12th Congress of the European Society for Agronomy, Helsinki, Finland, pp. 2012.
9. Topp, C.F.E., Rees, R.M. & Watson, C.A. (2011). Age of grass-clover sward: does it affect the predictions N fixed for subsequent crops? Aspects of Applied Biology 113, 89-92.
10. Walker, R.L. & Watson, C.A. (2011) Are inadequate soil populations of complimentary rhizobia restricting UK self sufficiency in legume protein? Aspects of Applied Biology 109, 71-77.
11. Walker, R.L., Watson, C.A., Armstrong, G. & Ball, B. (2011) The effects of crop rotation and soil management on worm activity and general soil health. Aspects of Applied Biology 113, 149-154.
12. Walker, R.L. (2010) Nutrient dynamics of organic cropping systems: a tricky balance. Proceedings of 15th World Fertilizer Congress of the International Scientific Centre for Fertilizers (CIEC), Bucharest, Romania, 29 Aug – 2 Sept, p.139-147.
13. R.L. Walker, A.C. Edwards, C.A. Watson, C.D. Campbell, S. Hillier & L. Morrice (2010) Nutrient cycling and soil fertility information gained from various long-term field experiments established on a granitic derived soil located in NE Scotland. Proceedings of 15th World Fertilizer Congress of the International Scientific Centre for Fertilizers (CIEC). Bucharest, Romania, 29 Aug – 2 Sept, p.503-512.
14. Watson, C.A., Topp, C.F.E. and Walker, R.L. (2010). Long-term rotational experiments – pointers for the future. Agro2010, the XI ESA Congress, Montpellier, pp. 793-794.
15. C.A. Watson, J.A. Baddeley, B.Ball, D. Moran, V.Pappa, R.M. Rees & R.L. Walker (2010) Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from organic farming. 2010 Organic Producer Conference, Harper Adams: Promoting organic principles, best practice and policies.
16. Ball,B., Hallett, P., Wheatley, R., Griffiths, B., Walker, R., Rees, R. & Watson, C. (2009) Trace gas emissions and minimum tillage, compost application and organic farming. Proceedings of the BSSS Meeting, Soil Quality = Environment Quality, Wexford 9-11 September 2009.
17. Topp, C.F.E., Walker, R.L., Watson, C.A., van der Burgt, G-J. (2009). Nitrogen dynamics in legume based rotations. “More Sustainability In Agriculture: New Fertilizers And Fertilization Management”. Proceedings of the 18th Symposium of the International Scientific Centre of Fertilizers, 8th to 12th November 2009, Rome, pp. 399-404.
18. Walker, R.L., Pappa, V.A., Rees, R.M., Baddeley, J.A., Watson, C.A. (2009). Effects of cereal / legume intercrops within a rotation. “More Sustainability In Agriculture: New Fertilizers And Fertilization Management”. Proceedings of the 18th Symposium of the International Scientific Centre of Fertilizers, 8th to 12th November 2009, Rome, pp. 393-398.
19. Topp, C.F.E, Rees, R.M., Walker, R.L, & Watson, C.A. (2008). The long-term global warming potential of a crop rotation in North-East Scotland Aspects of Applied Biology 88, pp. 25-30.
20. Walker, R., Topp, K. & Watson C. (2008). Rotational Experiments and Nitrogen Dynamics: Field Experiments and Modelling. Soil Nitrogen: research and extension Proceedings QLIF seminar, 13-15 February 2008, Driebergen, The Netherlands p. 23.
21. Watson, C.A. and Wachendorf, M. (2008). Sustainable nutrient management for organic farming systems. In: Biodiversity and Animal Feed. Future Challenges for Grassland Production. Grassland Science in Europe 13, 519-528.
22. McRoberts, N., Watson, C.A. & Squire, G.R. (2007). Weed community dynamics in mixed ley-arable rotations. XVI International Plant Protection Congress 2007, pp. 120-121.
23. Walker, R.L., Taylor, B.R., Watson, C.A. & Younie, D. (2006) Sustainability of long-term organic ley/arable crop rotations in Northern Scotland. Proceedings of the European Joint Organic Congress, 30 –31 May 2006, Odense, Denmark. pp 308-309.
24. Rees, R., Topp, C. & Watson, C. (2006). Delivering sustainable resource use through organically managed farming systems. Aspects of Applied Biology 80, 203-206.
25. Rees, R.M., Watson, C.A., Topp, C.F.E. & Sanders, I. (2006). Nitrogen fixation by white clover in organic rotations in Scotland. Quality legume-based forage systems for contrasting environments (COST 852) Ystad, Sweden, pp. 113-116.
26. Rees, R.M., Watson, C.A., Ball, B.C., Topp, C.F.E, Baddeley, J.A., Walker, R. & Mayer, C. (2006). The contribution of organic agriculture to sustainable land management in a temperate climate. Philadelphia, USA. 18th World Congress of Soil Science.
27. Topp, C.F.E. & Watson, C.A. (2006). Ploughing of grass/clover swards in an organic rotation – the impact on soil nitrogen dynamics. Aspects of Applied Biology 80, 207-212.
28. Topp, C.F.E., Watson, C.A., Rees, R.M. & Stockdale, E.A. (2006). Indicator systems – resource use in organic farming systems. Aspects of Applied Biology 79, 25-28.
29. Van der Burgt G.J.H.M., Topp C.F.E. & Watson CA (2006). Predicting soil nitrogen dynamics using NDICEA. Aspects of Applied Biology 80, 17-223.
30. Walker, R.L., Taylor, B.R., Watson, C.A. & Younie, D. (2006). Sustainability of long-term organic ley/arable crop rotations in Northern Scotland. Organic Farming and European Rural Development, pp. 308-309.
31. Wu, L., Ball, B.C., Baddeley, J.A. & Watson, C.A. (2006). Simulation of gaseous emissions of nitrogen from organic ley-arable systems under different management regimes. Aspects of Applied Biology 80, 101-103.
32. Rees, R.M., Watson, C.A. Topp, C.F.E. & Sanders, I. (2005). Nitrogen fixation by white clover in organic rotations in Scotland. In: Adaptation and management strategies for improved reliability in mixed swards, COST852 Conference proceedings. (Ed. B. Frankow-Lindberg) 33. Topp, C.F.E., Watson, C.A., Rees, R.M. & Sanders, I. (2005). The prediction of biological nitrogen fixation. In XX International Grassland Congress: Offered papers. Wageningen Academic Publishers, p. 877.
34. Ball, B.C. & Watson, C.A. (2004). Soil quality and greenhouse gas emissions in organic farming systems. Abstract Proceedings of the 4th European Summer Academy on Organic Farming. July 2004, Lednice, Poland, pp. 25-26.
35. Ball, B.C., Scott, A., McTaggart, I.P. & Watson, C.A. (2002). Greenhouse gas emissions from soils under organic management. Organic Research in Context, pp. 243-246.
36. Sanders, I., Watson, C.A., Rees, R.M. & Atkinson, D. (2002). Nitrogen fixation and soil nitrogen in organic ley arable rotations. Organic Research in Context, pp. 85-88.
37. Stockdale, E.A. & Watson, C.A. (2002). Nutrient budgets on organic farms: a review of published data. Organic Research in Context, pp. 129-132.
38. Topp, C.F.E., Doyle, C.J. & Watson, C.A. (2002). A framework for assessing crop production from rotations. Organic Research in Context, pp. 33-36.
39. Topp, C.F.E., Watson, C.A. & Stockdale, E.A. (2002). Utilising the concept of nutrients as a currency within organic farming system. Organic Research in Context, pp. 157-160.
40. Topp, C.F.E., Watson, C.A. & Stockdale, E.A. (2002). Nutrient budgets - their role in nutrient management. In Profitable Grass and Forage: Meeting the needs of farmer and society. BGS (Published on CD).
41. Sanders, I., Watson, C.A., Atkinson, D. & Rees, R.M. (2001). Effects of ley arable rotation on soil nitrogen and nitrogen fixation. Aspects of Applied Biology 63, 61-66.
42. Topp, C.F.E., Stockdale, E.A. & Watson, C.A. (2001). Using a nutrient budget model to predict the utilisation of nutrients within organic farming systems. In: Organic Grassland Farming, Grassland Science in Europe, Vol 6. (Eds: J. Isselstein, G. Spatz & M. Hofmann), pp. 238-240.
43. Sanders, I., Watson, C.A., Atkinson, D. & Rees, R.M. (2000). Temporal and spatial variability of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in organic farming systems. IFOAM 2000. The World grows Organic, pp. 94-96.
44. Topp, C.F.E., Fortune, S., Stockdale, E.A., Watson, C.A. & Ramsay, S. (2000). A comparison of a nitrogen budget for a conventional and an organic farming systems. Aspects of Applied Biology 62, pp. 205-212.
45. Watson, C.A., Younie, D., Stockdale, E.A. & Cormack, W.F. (2000). Yield and nutrient balances of stocked and stockless organic rotations. Aspects of Applied Biology 62, pp. 261-268.
46. Younie, D, Taylor, B.R. & Watson, C.A. (2000). Effect of crop rotation, manure application and site on yield and quality of organic oats. IFOAM 2000. The World grows Organic, p. 146.
47. Watson, C.A., Younie, D. & Armstrong, G. (1999). Designing crop rotations for organic farming: Importance of the ley-arable balance. In: Designing and Testing Crop Rotations for Organic Farming (Eds J.E. Olesen, R. Eltun, M.J. Gooding, E.S. Jensen, & U. Kopke), DARCOF Report No 1, pp. 91-98.
48. Watson, C.A. & Stockdale, E.A. (1999). Whole farm nutrient budgets: What do they tell us? In: Accounting for nutrients: A challenge for grassland farmers in the 21st Century (ed. A J Corrall), BGS Occasional Symposium, pp. 35-40.
49. Philipps, L., Stockdale, E.A. & Watson, C.A. (1998). Nitrogen leaching losses from mixed organic farming systems in the UK. In: Mixed farming systems in Europe (eds H. Van Keulen, E.A. Lantinga & H.H. Van Laar), APMinderhoudhoeve-reeks nr.2, Lanbouwuniversiteit Wageningen, pp. 165-170.
50. Watson, C.A. & Stockdale, E.A. (1998). Using nitrogen budgets as management tools in mixed farming systems. In: Mixed farming systems in Europe (Eds. H. Van Keulen, E.A. Lantinga & H.H. Van Laar), APMinderhoudhoeve-reeks nr. 2, Lanbouwuniversiteit Wageningen, pp. 129-134.
51. Watson, C.A., Stopes, C. & Philipps, L. (1997). Nutrient cycling in organically managed crop rotations: importance of rotation design. In: Resource Use in Organic Farming (eds J. Isart & J.J. Llerena), Proceedings of 3rd ENOF Workshop, pp. 61-68.
52. Watson, C.A., Ritz, K., Younie, D & Franklin, M. (1996). Nitrogen and soil biomass dynamics in two crop rotations. Aspects of Applied Biology 47, 43-50.
53. Younie, D., Watson, C.A & Squire, G.R. (1996). A comparison of crop rotations in organic farming: Agronomic performance. Aspects of Applied Biology 47, pp. 379-382.
54. Atkinson, D., Watson, C.A., Hooker, J.E. & Black, K.E. (1995). Nutrient Conservation in Organic Crop Production Systems. In: Soils in Sustainable Agriculture (Eds. H.F. Cook & H.C. Lee), Wye College Press, 54-60.
55. Watson, C.A. & Atkinson, D. (1995). Sustainable Farming Systems Initiative. In: Soils in Sustainable Agriculture (Eds. H.F. Cook & H.C. Lee), Wye College Press, pp. 44-46.
56. Watson, C.A. & Younie, D. (1995). Nutrient cycling in rotational cropping systems. In: Soils in Sustainable Agriculture (Eds. H.F. Cook & H.C. Lee), Wye College Press, pp. 346-353.
57. Goulding, K.T.W., Stockdale, E.A. & Watson C.A. (2009). Plant Nutrients in Organic Farming. In: Organic Crop Production - Ambitions and Limitations. (Eds. Kirchmann, H. & Bergström, L.), Springer, pp. 73-88.